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My thoughts for the game along the lines of dlcs and expansions ideas.


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I wonder if the maps above could possibly provide ideas for creation of alternative history Expeditions Roman Empire Expansion packs and DLCs. Involving the gradual Roman Empire possible imperial expansions and trade and diplomacy and military conflicts into the Roman Empire time period civilizations/cultures and kingdoms and empires beyond the Roman Empire's known world. And also additional expansion and dlc's exploration(with the necessary Amazon/MGM's legal permissions of course) of what if the Roman empire and the Roman Empire Time period civilzations/cultures and kingdoms and empires eventually/gradually discovered and figured out the Stargate franchise's Stargate systems within the Milky Way Galaxy, Pegasus Galaxy, Andromeda Galaxy and beyond allowing increasingly ever further gradual expansions and colonizations.

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117 AD (Updated) by Sharklord1 on DeviantArt


The map of the world in 117 A.D. : r/JackSucksAtLife


Another additional idea however would be even more complicated would be the following: Kardashev scale types of civilization from type 0 civilization (A Type 0 or K0 civilization extracts its energy, information and raw-materials initially from crude organic-based sources (i.e. food/wood/fossil fuelpressures via natural disasters, resource exhaustion, and societal collapse create extreme (99.9risk of extinction. Goes through agricultural and industrial revolutions and is eventually capable of advanced computing and orbital spaceflight. 21st-century humans are a Type 0 civilization.) to type type 3 civilization(A Type III civilization extracts fusion and exotic energy, information, and raw-materials from their galaxy. It is capable of intergalactic travel via wormholes, intergalactic communication via subspace, galactic engineering and galaxy-scale influence. By the time humans reach this state of the scale, they can be very hard to go extinct, as the saying "Too Big to Fail" starts to apply here.

This is the final type of civilization in the original proposal of the Kardashev Scale.)

And from Kardashev type 4 civilization (A Type IV civilization, or K4 civilization harnesses the power of its own supercluster of galaxies, and eventually its universe of origin, and become effectively immortal. A civilization this advanced could tap into the mysterious dark matter and manipulate the basic fabric of spacetime. Their capabilities may include instantaneous matter-energy transformation, teleportation, and time travel.) Gradually to Kardashian typ7 civilization (A type VII or K7 civilization would travel, transcend and ultimately oversee orbethe Omniverse which is the collection of every single universe, multiverse, megaverse, paraverse, 11d dimension and 1st realm (reality). Everything is in the Omniverse, and there is only one Omniverse.

It is likely that such power would come from an individual rather than a civilization, as the civilization would have transcended and merged into a single mind that would encompass all thoughts and all timelines, thus being omnipotent, omnipresent, and omniscient. This is the Creator: a god above all gods, responsible for all of existence, past and future.)

Andgradually from Kardashev type 8 civilization (A Type VIII civilization would be able to exit its omniverse, and travel to other dimensions beyond 11d, each of them having complex interactions with their omniverse of origin. This is the hyperverse. They will eventually reach the multidimension and megadimension.) To Kardashev type 30 civilization (A Type XXX civilization exists beyond the highest planes outside reality and non-reality.

They are the Gatekeepers of the Beyond. They are the Beyonders.

Type XXX citizens live in the tenth level or tier of the Pyramid. The actuality of the Beyonders and their home is unknown and unknowable and is therefore a concept.) If you would consider watching the YouTube videos of the YouTube channel Imagining the tenth dimension it would possibly help explain the Omniverse portion with helping explain the possibility of categorical possible types of infinity within overall actual infinity.  Kardashev Scale
Category page
Navigation to Kardashev Type

Type 0 Pre-Planetary
Type I Planetary
Type II Stellar
Type III Galactic
Type IV Universal
Type V Multiversal
Type VI Megaversal
Type VII Omniversal
Type VIII Hyperversal
Type IX Omnidimensional
Type X Outerversal
Type XI Outerversal
Type XII Realmsversal
Type XIII Realmsversal
Type XIV Adversal
Type XV Multiadversal
Type XVI Megadversal
Type XVII Paradversal
Type XVIII Omniadversal
Type XIX Pre-Beyonders
Type XX Beyonders
Type XXX Truth

Sci-Fi Short FilmThe Looking Planet" DUST

4h ago c34ConlonKeith
And your thoughts on I was with the longer comment comment bringing up potentially how far especially multigenerationally especially if you involve economics between the local towns cities townships and counties individual economies, states/territories individual economies, nations/countries individual economies and the Planet Earth international/global economy. Then gradually in the however far into the future with the individual economies outside the particualar individual multiversal version of Planet Earth such as the individual economies of the other asteroids, asteroid belts, moons, planets, solar systems, galaxies, groups of galaxies, realities/timelines, and groups of realities/galaxies within solar systems, galaxies, universes, local home multiverse, and Multi-multiverse(groups of local multiverses) that Planet Earth could trade with. Today's standards for the wealth gap could actually gradually grow past millionaries, billionaires, into trillionaires and all the way into Centillionaires (303 zeros). (This here is where I initially lost you so I attempted shrinking it down for you:
millionaires, billionaires, trillionaires, Quintillionaire (18 zeros1,000,000,000,000,000,000

Sextillionaire (21 zeros1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

Septillionaire (24 zeros1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

Octillionaire (27 zeros1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

Nonillionaire (30 zeros1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

Decillionaire (33 zeros1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

Undecillionaire (36 zeros1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

Duodecillionaire (39 zeros1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

Tredecillionaire (42 zeros):

Quattuordecillionaire (45 zeros):

Quindecillionaire (48 zeros):

Sexdecillionaire (51 zeros):

Septendecillionaire (54 zeros)

Octodecillionaire (57 zeros)

Novemdecillionaire (60 zeros)

Vigintillionaire (63 zeros)

Undecillionaire (60 zeros)

Centillionaire (303 zeros).)

And with that would possibly and potentially come in adjacent corporate and none corporate organizations(such as governments of socialist nations/countries), individuals, and households having privatized and (socialist) communal nationalized real estate involving asteroids, asteroid belts, moons, planets, solar systems, galaxies, groups of galaxies, realities/timelines, and groups of realities/galaxies within solar systems, galaxies, universes, local home multiverse, and Multi-multiverse(groups of local multiverses).

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And as the roman empire and other roman empire time period civilizations/empires territory/citizenship membership/subject membership grow. All aspects(Including their military, espionage, assasination, technology, political governments, religions, education systems, math, Architecture, Entertainment, and sciences, Arts) of their various civilizations and sub-civilizations cultures and diverse sub-cultures should additionally adapt, evolve, and Grow rather than relatively remain the same/similarly during their entire history of existence. It simply seems like would make historical character roleplay computer games/video games such as the Expedition series even more interesting.


The evolution of the diversity of cultures - PMC (nih.gov)

https://web.ung.edu/media/university-press/World History Textbook-082817.pdf

Key Components of Civilization | National Geographic Society

Human Adaptation Overview & History | How Do Humans Adapt to Environments? - Video & Lesson Transcript | Study.com

Microsoft Word - anthro_fm.doc (cartercenter.org)


A Brief History of Mind and Civilization | Cadmus Journal


Alternate history - Wikipedia


10 Mind-Bending Alternate Histories (publishersweekly.com)


Alternative history Definition & Meaning - Merriam-Webster


Alternate History Books (goodreads.com)


Alternate Histories


What is Alternative History? Alternative History Defined (graemeshimmin.com)


List of alternate history fiction - Wikipedia


The Past, Conditionally: Alternative History in Speculative Fiction | Perspectives on History | AHA (historians.org)


The Museum of Alternative History

Roma Eterna - Wikipedia


What If Rome Never Fell? | Alternate History | by Monsieur Z | Medium


What If the Roman Empire Never Fell? | Unveiled | WatchMojo.com



"Alternate History Hub" What If the Roman Empire Never Fell?: Part 3 (TV Episode 2013) - IMDb


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Germanicus trilogy - Wikipedia



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Amazon.com: What If?: The World's Foremost Historians Imagine What Might Have Been (What If Essays) eBook : Cowley, Robert, Robert Cowley: Kindle Store








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8th and 7th centuries BC[edit]

Year Date Event
753 BC 21 April Rome was founded. According to Roman legend, Romulus was the founder and first King of Rome, establishing the Roman Kingdom.
715 BC july 5 Numa Pompilius became the second King of Rome.
673 BC   Tullus Hostilius became the third King of Rome.
667 BC   Byzantium was founded by Megarian colonists.
642 BC   Tullus Hostilius died.
  The Curiate Assembly, one of the legislative assemblies of the Roman Kingdom, elected Ancus Marcius King of Rome.
617 BC   Ancus Marcius died.
616 BC   The Curiate Assembly elected Lucius Tarquinius Priscus King of Rome.

6th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
575 BC   The Senate accepted the regent Servius Tullius as king of Rome.
535 BC   Servius Tullius was murdered by his daughter Tullia Minor and her husband Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, who declared himself King of Rome on the steps of the Curia Hostilia.
509 BC   The patrician Lucretia was raped by Lucius Tarquinius Superbus' son Sextus Tarquinius.
  Overthrow of the Roman monarchy: Following Lucretia's suicide, Lucius Junius Brutus called the Curiate Assembly, one of the legislative assemblies of the Roman Kingdom. The latter agreed to the overthrow and expulsion of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus and to a provisional constitution under which two consuls acted as a joint executive and a Curiate Assembly held legislative power, and swore never again to let a king rule Rome. It further elected Lucius Junius Brutus and Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, Lucretia's husband, as consuls.
  Battle of Silva Arsia: Tarquinian and Veientine forces loyal to Lucius Tarquinius Superbus were defeated in the Silva Arsia by a Roman army. Lucius Junius Brutus was killed. Publius Valerius Publicola, returning to Rome with the spoils of war, was awarded the first Roman Triumph on March 1.
  The consul Publius Valerius Publicola promulgated a number of liberal reforms, including opening the office of consul to all Roman citizens and placing the treasury under the administration of appointed quaestors.
13 September The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus was ceremonially dedicated to the Capitoline Triad.
508 BC   Roman–Etruscan Wars: A Clusian army failed to conquer Rome.
501 BC   In the face of a potential Sabine invasion, the Senate passed a senatus consultum authorizing the consuls to appoint a dictator, a magistrate who held absolute power during a national emergency. The dictator would in turn appoint the Magister equitum, the commander of the cavalry. The consuls Titus Larcius and Postumus Cominius Auruncus selected the former as dictator.

5th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
496 BC   Battle of Lake Regillus: Latin League invasion near modern Frascati which sought to reinstall Lucius Tarquinius Superbus.
494 BC   First secessio plebis:

Lucius Sicinius Vellutus, the plebs abandoned Rome for the nearby Monte Sacro.

471 BC   After a law allowing organization of the plebs tribe, the Plebeian Council was reorganized by tribes rather than curiae.
459 BC   Under popular pressure, the Senate increased the tribunes of the plebs from two to ten.
458 BC   During the first dictatorship of Cincinnatus, the Aequians staged an offensive, breaking a truce. Cincinnatus defeated the Aquians at the Battle of Mount Algidus and after a triumph, returned to his farm after sixteen days.[1]
449 BC   Resolutions of the Plebeian Council were given the full force of law subject to Senate veto.
  The second of two decemviri, specially-elected ten man commissions, issued the last of the Twelve Tables, the fundamental laws of the Republic.
447 BC   The Tribal Assembly was established, and granted the right to elect quaestors.
445 BC   Lex Canuleia: Marriage between patricians and plebeians was legalized.
443 BC   The offices of the Tribuni militum consulari potestate were established. A collegium of three patrician or plebeian tribunes, one each from specific Roman tribes (the Titienses, the Ramnenses, and the Luceres), would hold the power of the consuls from year to year, subject to the Senate.
  The office of the censor, a patrician magistrate responsible for conducting the census in years without a consul, was established.
439 BC   Cincinnatus was called upon to accept a second dictatorship by the patricians to prevent Spurius Maelius from seizing power; the patricians suspected Spurius of using wheat to purchase the support of the plebeians, to set himself up as a king. Gaius Servilius Ahala was appointed magister equitum in order to stop Maelius; following an attack by Maelius, Ahala slew him. Cincinnatus again resigned his dictatorship and returned to his farm after 21 days.[1]
435 BC   Fidenae, an important trade post on the Tiber, was captured from the Veii.[2]
408 BC   The Tribuni militum consulari potestate held office.

4th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
396 BC   Battle of Veii: Roman forces led by the dictator Marcus Furius Camillus conquered Veii.
  Roman soldiers first earned a salary ("salary" from Latin for "salt").
394 BC   The consuls held office.
391 BC   The Tribuni militum consulari potestate held office.
390 BC 18 July Battle of the Allia: The Senones routed a Roman force at the confluence of the rivers Allia and Tiber.
  The Senones sacked Rome. Among other artifacts, books were destroyed. The history of Rome up to this point had to be mostly reconstructed and is sometimes unreliable or mythological.
367 BC   The consuls held office.
366 BC   Lucius Sextius was elected the first plebeian consul.
  The office of Praetor, which took the judiciary responsibilities of the consul and could be held only by a patrician, was established.
351 BC   The first plebeian dictator was elected.
  The first plebeian censor was elected.
343 BC   Samnite Wars: Rome marched against the Samnites, probably after an appeal from the Campanians.
  Battle of Mount Gaurus: A Samnite force was routed by a Roman army near Mount Barbaro.
342 BC   The Leges Genuciae were passed, banning a person from holding two offices at the same time, or during any ten-year period; charging interest on loans was also banned.
341 BC   Samnite Wars: The Senate agreed a peace, following an appeal by the Samnite to a previous treaty of friendship.
340 BC   Latin War: The Latin League invaded Samnium.
339 BC   A law was passed which required the election of at least one plebeian censor every five years.
338 BC   Latin War: Rome defeated the Latin League armies.
337 BC   The first plebeian Praetor was elected.
328 BC   Samnite Wars: Rome declared war on the Samnites after their failure to prevent their subjects raiding Fregellae.
321 BC   Battle of the Caudine Forks: After being trapped in a mountain pass near Caudium without a water supply, Roman forces were allowed to retreat by a Samnite army.
315 BC   Battle of Lautulae: A decisive Samnite victory near Terracina split Roman territory in two.
311 BC   Samnite Wars: The Etruscans laid siege to Sutri.
310 BC   Battle of Lake Vadimo (310 BC): Rome inflicted a substantial military defeat on the Etruscans at Lake Vadimo.
308 BC   Samnite Wars: The Umbri, Picentes and Marsi joined the Samnites against Rome.
306 BC   The Hernici declared their independence from Rome.
304 BC   Rome conquered the Aequi.
  Samnite Wars: The treaty of friendship between the Romans and Samnites was restored.

3rd century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
300 BC   The Lex Ogulnia was passed, allowing plebeians to become priests.
298 BC   Samnite Wars: Rome declared war on the Samnites after an appeal by the Lucani.
  Samnite Wars: Rome captured the Samnite cities of Bojano and Castel di Sangro.
297 BC   Battle of Tifernum: A Roman army defeated a numerically superior Samnite force at Città di Castello.
295 BC   Battle of Sentinum: A Roman army decisively defeated a numerically superior force of Samnites, Etruscans, Umbri and Senones in coalition at Sentinum. The consul Publius Decius Mus (consul 312 BC) was killed.
294 BC   Samnite Wars: Roman and Samnite forces battled at Lucera.
293 BC   Battle of Aquilonia: A Roman army destroyed the majority of Samnite forces, probably in modern Agnone.
  A census counted about 270,000 residents of Rome.
291 BC   Samnite Wars: Rome conquered and colonized the Samnite city of Venosa.
290 BC   Samnite Wars: The last effective Samnite resistance was eliminated.
287 BC   Conflict of the Orders: A secessio plebis took place.
  Conflict of the Orders: The Lex Hortensia was passed, made resolutions of the Plebeian Council (plebiscites) binding on all Romans, they formally only applied to plebeians.[3]
283 BC   Battle of Lake Vadimo (283 BC): A Roman army defeated a combined force of Etruscans, Boii and Senones near Lake Vadimo.
281 BC   Taranto appealed to Epirus for aid against Rome.
280 BC   Pyrrhic War: An Epirote army of some 25,000 landed at Taranto.
July Battle of Heraclea: A Greek coalition force led by the Epirote king Pyrrhus of Epirus defeated a Roman army after their deployment of war elephants at Heraclea Lucania.
279 BC   Battle of Asculum: A Greek force led by the Epirote king Pyrrhus defeated a Roman army at modern Ascoli Satriano, despite suffering heavy losses.
275 BC   Battle of Beneventum (275 BC): Roman and Epirote armies met in a bloody battle at Benevento.
272 BC   Pyrrhic War: Pyrrhus withdrew with his army to Epirus.
  Pyrrhic War: Taranto surrendered to Rome.
267 BC   The number of quaestors was raised from four to ten.
264 BC   Battle of Messana: A Roman force defeated a Carthaginian and Siracusani garrison at Messina.
242 BC   The office of the praetor qui inter peregrinos ius dicit, a Praetor with jurisdiction over foreigners, was created.
241 BC   First Punic War: Sicily was organized as the province of Sicilia.
238 BC   Mercenary War: Carthage surrendered its claims on Sardinia and Corsica to Rome.
229 BC   Illyrian Wars: Rome invaded the territory of the Ardiaei.
228 BC   Illyrian Wars: The Ardiaei surrendered some territory, including strategically significant ports, to Rome, ending the war.
225 BC   Battle of Telamon: A Roman army decisively defeated a Gallic invasion near modern Talamone. The consul Gaius Atilius Regulus was killed.
219 BC   Illyrian Wars: Rome invaded Hvar.
218 BC   Second Punic War: A Carthaginian army departed Cartagena.
  Illyrian Wars: Demetrius of Pharos fled to Macedonia.
216 BC 2 August Battle of Cannae: The Carthaginian general Hannibal decisively defeated a numerically superior Roman force at Cannae/Marathon.
214 BC   First Macedonian War: A Macedonian fleet captured Oricum.
  Siege of Syracuse (214–212 BC): Rome laid siege to Syracuse.
212 BC   Siege of Syracuse (214–212 BC): Roman forces breached the inner citadel of Syracuse and slaughtered its inhabitants.
205 BC   First Macedonian War: Rome and Macedonia signed the Treaty of Phoenice, according to which Macedonia renounced its alliance with Carthage in exchange for Roman recognition of its gains in Illyria.
204 BC   Second Punic War: The consul Scipio Africanus landed an invasion fleet at Utica.
202 BC 19 October Battle of Zama: A Roman army decisively defeated Carthage, probably near modern Sakiet Sidi Youssef.
201 BC   Second Punic War: Carthage accepted Roman conditions for peace, including disarmament, a war indemnity of ten thousand talents, and the cession of Iberia, ending the war.

2nd century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
200 BC   Second Macedonian War: A Roman fleet arrived in Illyria to relieve a Macedonian siege of Abydos.
197 BC   The provinces of Hispania Ulterior and Hispania Citerior were organized.
  The number of quaestors was increased to twelve.
  The number of Praetors was increased to six.
196 BC   Second Macedonian War: Macedonia surrendered its conquests in Greece and agreed to pay a war indemnity, ending the war.
192 BC   Roman–Seleucid War: The Seleucid Empire invaded Greece.
188 BC   Roman–Seleucid War: The Seleucid Empire signed the Treaty of Apamea, under which it surrendered all territory west of the Taurus Mountains to the Roman clients Rhodes and Pergamon and agreed to disarm its navy and pay a war indemnity of fifteen thousand talents of silver to Rome.
180 BC   The Lex Villia annalis, which established minimum ages for high office and required a minimum of two years in private life between offices, was passed.
172 BC   Third Macedonian War: Rome declared war on Macedonia.
167 BC   Third Macedonian War: The Macedonian king Perseus of Macedon was captured. Macedonia was divided into four districts subject to Rome.
155 BC   Lusitanian War: The Lusitanians of Hispania Ulterior rebelled against Rome.
150 BC   Fourth Macedonian War: An Andriscus rebelled against Rome, claiming to be Perseus's son and the rightful king of Macedonia.
149 BC   Third Punic War: Rome declared war on Carthage.
  The Lex Calpurnia was passed, establishing a Praetor-led court to hear appeals against extortionate taxes levied by governors in the provinces.
148 BC   Fourth Macedonian War: Andriscus was surrendered to Rome to be executed.
146 BC   Third Punic War: Roman forces breached the city of Carthage, burned it, and enslaved its surviving inhabitants.
  Achaean War: Roman forces decisively defeated the armies of the Achaean League at Corinth.
  The province of Macedonia was organized.
  The province of Africa was organized on captured Carthaginian territory.
139 BC   Lusitanian War: The Lusitanian leader Viriatus was assassinated by his three ambassadors to Rome Audax, Ditalcus and Minurus.
  Lex Gabinia tabellaria: required a secret ballot in elections of all magistrates.
133 BC   The Tribune of the Plebs Tiberius Gracchus was beaten to death by a mob of senators led by the Pontifex Maximus Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica Serapio (consul 138 BC).
121 BC   The province of Gallia Narbonensis was organized.
  The first Senatus consultum ultimum was passed, granting the consul Lucius Opimius emergency powers to defeat the partisans of Gaius Gracchus.
112 BC   Jugurthine War: Rome declared war on Numidia.
107 BC   Gaius Marius was elected consul.
  Marius instituted the Marian reforms of the military, among them the establishment of a standing army and the recruitment of non-property owners.
106 BC   Marius was reelected consul.
  Jugurthine War: The Numidian king Jugurtha was imprisoned in the Mamertine Prison.
105 BC 6 October Battle of Arausio: A coalition of the Cimbri and Teutons inflicted a serious defeat on the Roman army at modern Orange. Some hundred thousand Roman soldiers were killed.
104 BC   Marius was elected consul for the first of three years in a row.
102 BC   Battle of Aquae Sextiae: Rome decisively defeated the forces of the Teutons and Ambrones and killed some ninety thousand soldiers and civilians.
101 BC   Battle of Vercellae: An invasion of Italy by the Cimbri was decisively defeated by a numerically inferior Roman force. Some hundred thousand Cimbri soldiers and civilians were killed along with their king Boiorix.

1st century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
100 BC   Marius was elected consul.
10 December Assassins hired by Lucius Appuleius Saturninus and Gaius Servilius Glaucia beat to death Gaius Memmius, a candidate for the consulship.
91 BC   Social War (91–87 BC): The Roman clients in Italy the Marsi, the Paeligni, the Vestini, the Marrucini, the Picentes, the Frentani, the Hirpini, the Iapyges, Pompeii, Venosa, Lucania and Samnium rebelled against Rome.
88 BC   Sulla's march on Rome: The consul Sulla led an army of his partisans across the pomerium into Rome.
  Social War (91–89 BC): The war ended.
87 BC   First Mithridatic War: Roman forces landed at Epirus.
85 BC   First Mithridatic War: A peace was agreed between Rome and Pontus under which the latter returned to its prewar borders.
83 BC   Sulla's civil war: Sulla landed with an army at Brindisi.
  Second Mithridatic War: The Roman general Lucius Licinius Murena invaded Pontus.
82 BC   Sulla's civil war: Sulla was declared dictator.
81 BC   Second Mithridatic War: Murena withdrew from Pontus.
  Sulla resigns dictatorship after enacting numerous reforms in the same year.
80 BC   Final consulship of Sulla, he leaves Rome once the year is over.
  Sertorian War: Quintus Sertorius landed on the Iberian Peninsula in support of a Lusitanian rebellion.
73 BC   Third Mithridatic War: Pontus invaded Bithynia.
  Third Servile War: Some seventy gladiators, slaves of Lentulus Batiatus in Capua, made a violent escape.
72 BC   Sertorian War: Marcus Perpenna Vento, by now the leader of the Romans in revolt in Iberia, was executed by the general Pompey.
71 BC   Third Servile War: The slaves in rebellion were decisively defeated by Roman forces near Petelia. Their leader Spartacus was killed.
66 BC   The last of the Cilician pirates were wiped out by Pompey.
63 BC   Third Mithridatic War: Defeated, the Pontic king Mithridates VI of Pontus ordered his friend and bodyguard to kill him.
  Siege of Jerusalem (63 BC): Pompey conquered Jerusalem and entered the Holy of Holies of the Second Temple.
  Cicero was elected consul.
  Second Catilinarian conspiracy: A conspiracy led by the senator Catiline to overthrow the Republic was exposed before the Senate. The five conspirators present were summarily executed in the Mamertine Prison.
60 BC   Pompey joined a political alliance, the so-called First Triumvirate, with the consul Julius Caesar and the censor Marcus Licinius Crassus.
59 BC   Consulship of Julius Caesar.
58 BC   Gallic Wars: Roman forces barred the westward migration of the Helvetii across the Rhône.
55 BC   1st Invasion of Britain: Julius Caesar's first invasion of Britain.
54 BC   2nd Invasion of Britain: Julius Caesar's second invasion of Britain.
53 BC 6 May Battle of Carrhae: A Parthian army decisively defeated a numerically superior Roman invasion force near Harran. Crassus was killed.
50 BC   Gallic Wars: The last Gaulish rebels were defeated.
49 BC 10 January Caesar's Civil War: Julius Caesar illegally crossed the Rubicon into Italy with his army.
48 BC 4 January Caesar's Civil War: Caesar landed at Durrës in pursuit of Pompey and his partisans the optimates.
46 BC November Caesar left Africa for Iberia in pursuit of Pompey's sons Gnaeus Pompeius and Sextus Pompey.
44 BC 15 March Assassination of Julius Caesar: Caesar was assassinated in the Theatre of Pompey by a conspiracy of senators.
43 BC 27 November The Lex Titia was passed, granting the Second Triumvirate of Octavian (later known as Augustus), Mark Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus the power to make and annul laws and appoint magistrates.
42 BC   Liberators' civil war: Augustus and Antony led some thirty legions to northern Greece in pursuit of Caesar's assassins Marcus Junius Brutus the Younger and Gaius Cassius Longinus.
23 October Liberators' civil war: Brutus committed suicide after being defeated in battle.
33 BC   Antony's Parthian War: A campaign led by Antony against the Parthian Empire ended in failure.
  The Second Triumvirate expired.
31 BC 2 September Battle of Actium: Forces loyal to Augustus defeated Antony and his lover Cleopatra, queen of Egypt, in a naval battle near Actium.
30 BC 1 August Final War of the Roman Republic: Antony's forces defected to Augustus. He committed suicide.
30 August Cleopatra committed suicide, probably in Roman custody and by snakebite.
  The province of Egypt was organized. Augustus took the title pharaoh.
29 BC   Moesia was annexed to Rome.
  Cantabrian Wars: Rome deployed some eighty thousand soldiers against the Cantabri in Iberia.
27 BC 16 January The Senate granted Augustus the titles augustus, majestic, and princeps, first.
25 BC   Augustus indicated his nephew Marcus Claudius Marcellus (Julio-Claudian dynasty) as his chosen successor by marrying him to his only daughter Julia the Elder.
  The Roman client Amyntas of Galatia died. Augustus organized his territory as the province of Galatia.
24 BC   Augustus' campaigns against the Cantabrians in Hispania Tarraconensis, the Cantabrian Wars, ended.
23 BC   Coinage reform of Augustus: Augustus centralized the minting of and reformed the composition and value of the Roman currency.
  Marcellus died.
21 BC   Augustus married Julia to his general Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa.
19 BC   Cantabrian Wars: The last major combat operations ended. The Cantabri and Astures were pacified.
17 BC   Augustus adopted the sons of Agrippa and Julia, his grandsons Gaius Caesar and Lucius Caesar, as his own sons.
16 BC   Raetia and Noricum were conquered and annexed to Rome.
12 BC   Germanic Wars: Roman forces crossed the Rhine into Germania.
  Agrippa died of fever.
11 BC   Augustus married Julia to his general and stepson Tiberius.
BC   The Roman general Nero Claudius Drusus died from injuries sustained falling from a horse.
  Pannonia was annexed and incorporated into Illyricum.
BC   Augustus offered Tiberius tribunician power and imperium over the eastern half of the Empire. Tiberius refused, announcing his retirement to Rhodes.
BC   Augustus was acclaimed Pater Patriae, father of the country, by the Senate.[4]
  Augustus convicted Julia of adultery and treason, annulled her marriage to Tiberius, and exiled her with her mother Scribonia to Ventotene.


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1st century[edit]

Year Date Event
AD 2 20 August Lucius Caesar died of a sudden illness.
  Augustus allowed Tiberius to return to Rome as a private citizen.
  AD 4 21 February Gaius Caesar died in Lycia from wounds suffered in battle.
  Augustus adopted Tiberius as his son and granted him tribunician power.
AD 6   Augustus deposed Herod Archelaus, ethnarch in Samaria, Judea and Idumea, and organized the province of Judea on his territories.
  Bellum Batonianum: The Daesitiates, an Illyrian people, rose up against Roman authority in Illyricum.
AD 9   Bellum Batonianum: The Daesitiate chieftain Bato (Daesitiate chieftain) surrendered to Roman forces.
September Battle of the Teutoburg Forest: A coalition of Germanic forces ambushed and destroyed three Roman legions in the Teutoburg Forest. Publius Quinctilius Varus, the commander of Roman forces in Germania, committed suicide.
AD 10   Tiberius assumed command of Roman forces in Germania.
  Illyricum was divided into the provinces of Pannonia and Dalmatia.
AD 13   Tiberius was granted power equal to Augustus as co-princeps.
AD 14 19 August Augustus died.
  Germanicus, son of Nero Claudius Drusus and adoptive son of Tiberius, was appointed commander of Roman forces in Germania.
  Germanicus and Tiberius's natural son Drusus Julius Caesar were sent to suppress mutinies in Germania and Pannonia, respectively.
AD 15   Lucius Seius Strabo was appointed governor of Egypt. His son Sejanus remained as the sole prefect of the Praetorian Guard.
AD 16   Battle of the Weser River: A Roman army led by Germanicus decisively defeated a Germanic force on the Weser.
AD 17   Archelaus of Cappadocia, king in Cappadocia and a Roman client, died. Tiberius annexed his territory, organizing it as the province of Cappadocia.
  Antiochus III of Commagene, king of Commagene and a Roman client, died. Tiberius annexed his territory to the province of Syria.
AD 18   Tiberius granted Germanicus imperium over the eastern half of the Empire.
AD 19 10 October Germanicus died in Antioch, possibly after being poisoned on Tiberius's orders.
AD 22   Tiberius granted Drusus Julius Caesar tribunician power, marking him as his choice as successor.
AD 23 14 September Drusus Julius Caesar died, possibly after being poisoned by Sejanus or his wife Livilla.
AD 26   Tiberius retired to Capri, leaving Sejanus in control of Rome through his office.
AD 28   The Frisii hanged their Roman tax collectors and expelled the governor.
AD 29   Livia, Augustus's widow and Tiberius's mother, died.
AD 31 18 October Sejanus was executed on Tiberius's orders.
  Tiberius invited Germanicus's son Caligula to join him on Capri.
AD 37 16 March Tiberius died. His will left his offices jointly to Caligula and Drusus Julius Caesar's son, his grandson Tiberius Gemellus.
AD 38   Tiberius Gemellus was murdered on Caligula's orders.
AD 40   Ptolemy of Mauretania, king of Mauretania and a Roman client, was murdered on Caligula's orders during a state visit to Rome. His slave Aedemon rose in revolt against Roman rule.
AD 41   The general Gaius Suetonius Paulinus was appointed to suppress the rebellion in Mauretania.
24 January Caligula was assassinated by the centurion Cassius Chaerea.
The Praetorian Guard acclaimed Nero Claudius Drusus's son Claudius princeps.
  Claudius restored the Judean monarchy under king Herod Agrippa.
AD 42   The territory of the former Mauretania was organized into the provinces of Mauretania Caesariensis and Mauretania Tingitana.
AD 43   Roman conquest of Britain: The senator Aulus Plautius led four legions into Great Britain in support of king Verica of the Atrebates.
  Claudius annexed Lycia into the Empire as a province.
AD 46   The Odrysian king Rhoemetalces III, a Roman client, was killed by anti-Roman insurgents.
  Odrysia was incorporated into the Empire as the province of Thracia.
AD 48   Claudius's wife Messalina was executed for conspiracy.
  Claudius appointed Herod Agrippa's son Herod Agrippa II king of Judea.
AD 49   Claudius married his niece, Germanicus's daughter Agrippina the Younger.
AD 50   Claudius adopted Agrippina's son Nero as his own son.
AD 54 13 October Claudius died. Nero succeeded him as princeps.
AD 55 11 February Claudius's young natural son Britannicus died, probably by poison.
AD 58   Roman–Parthian War of 58–63: Roman forces attacked Armenia in support of their preferred king Tigranes VI of Armenia against the Parthian candidate Tiridates I of Armenia.
AD 59 23 March Agrippina died, probably murdered by her son Nero.
AD 60   Boudica, a queen of the Iceni, was appointed to lead a revolt of the Iceni and the Trinovantes against Rome.
AD 61   Battle of Watling Street: Some eighty thousand soldiers and civilians among the Iceni and Trinovantes were killed, probably in the modern West Midlands, ending Boudica's revolt.
AD 63   Roman–Parthian War of 58–63: The Roman and Parthian Empires agreed that Tiridates and his descendants would remain kings of Armenia as Roman clients, ending the war.
AD 64 18 July Great Fire of Rome: A fire began which would cause massive property damage and loss of life over six days in Rome.
  Nero began construction of his large and extravagant villa the Domus Aurea.
AD 65 19 April Pisonian conspiracy: Nero was informed of a broad conspiracy to assassinate him and appoint the senator Gaius Calpurnius Piso leader of Rome.
AD 66   First Jewish–Roman War: The Jewish population of Judea revolted against Roman rule.
AD 68 9 June Nero, then in hiding in the villa of the freedman Phaon, was notified that the Senate had declared him an enemy of the state and ordered him brought to the Forum to be publicly beaten to death. He ordered his secretary Epaphroditus to kill him.
The Senate accepted Galba, governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, as ruler of Rome.
  Zealot Temple Siege: The forces of Ananus ben Ananus, the Jewish former High Priest of Israel, laid siege to the Zealots in the Second Temple.
AD 69 15 January The Praetorian Guard assassinated Galba and acclaimed Otho ruler of Rome.
16 April Following his defeat by Vitellius, the commander of the Roman army on the lower Rhine, near modern Calvatone, and to prevent further civil war, Otho committed suicide.
  Revolt of the Batavi: Gaius Julius Civilis, commander of the Batavi auxiliaries in the Rhine legions, turned against Rome.
December The Senate recognized Vespasian, the commander of Roman forces in Egypt and Judea, as ruler of Rome.
22 December Vitellius was executed in Rome by troops loyal to Vespasian.
AD 70   Revolt of the Batavi: Following a series of battlefield reversals, Civilis accepted peace terms from the Roman general Quintus Petillius Cerialis.
September Siege of Jerusalem (70 CE): The Roman general Titus breached the walls of Jerusalem, sacked the city and destroyed the Second Temple.
AD 71   Roman conquest of Britain: Roman forces entered modern Scotland.
AD 73 16 April Siege of Masada: Roman forces breached the walls of Masada, a mountain fortress held by the Jewish extremist sect the Sicarii.
AD 77   Gnaeus Julius Agricola was appointed consul and governor of Britain.
AD 79 23 June Vespasian died. He was succeeded by his son Titus.
24 August Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79: Mount Vesuvius erupted, destroying the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum.
AD 80   Rome was partially destroyed by fire.
March The Colosseum was completed.
AD 81 13 September Titus died of fever. He was succeeded by his younger brother Domitian.
AD 85   Agricola was recalled to Rome.
AD 86   Domitian's Dacian War: The Dacian king Decebalus invaded Moesia.
AD 88   Domitian's Dacian War: Decebalus agreed to return all Roman prisoners of war and accept his status as a Roman client in exchange for an annual subsidy of eight million sestertii, ending the war.
AD 89 1 January Lucius Antonius Saturninus, governor of Germania Superior, revolted against Domitian's rule.
  Saturninus was executed.
AD 96 18 September Domitian was assassinated by members of the royal household.
Nerva was declared ruler of Rome by the Senate.
AD 97   Nerva adopted the general and former consul Trajan as his son.
  Antiochus III of Commagene, king of Commagene and a Roman [[client state|cli AD 98 27 January Nerva died. Trajan succeeded him.

2nd century[edit]

Year Date Event
101   First Dacian War: Rome invaded Dacia.
September Second Battle of Tapae: Dacian forces retreated from contact with the Romans at Tapae.
102   First Dacian War: The Dacian king Decebalus reaffirmed his loyalty to Rome, ending the war.
105   Second Dacian War: Trajan responded to the resumption of raids on Roman settlements in Moesia by invading Dacia.
106   Battle of Sarmisegetusa: Roman forces breached the Dacian capital Sarmizegetusa Regia. The Dacian king Decebalus escaped to the east.
  The Nabatean king Rabbel II Soter died.
22 March Nabatea was annexed to the Roman empire as the province of Arabia Petraea.
  Second Dacian War: The Dacian king Decebalus committed suicide in his fortification at Ranisstorum to avoid capture.
107   The province of Dacia was organized.
112   Trajan's Forum was inaugurated.
113   Roman–Parthian Wars: Trajan launched an expedition against Parthia.
  Trajan's Column was erected in Trajan's Forum to commemorate the victory over Dacia.
114   Trajan deposed the Armenian king Parthamasiris of Armenia, a Roman client, and organized the province of Armenia on his territory.
115   Kitos War: The Jews in Cyrene rose up against Roman authority.
116   The provinces of Mesopotamia and Assyria were organized on territory conquered from Parthia.
  Trajan captured the Parthian capital Ctesiphon and deposed its shah Osroes I in favor of his son Parthamaspates of Parthia.
117   Kitos War: Roman forces captured the rebel stronghold of Lod and executed many of its inhabitants.
8 August Trajan died.
10 August The Senate accepted the general Hadrian as ruler of Rome, following the appearance of documents indicating he had been adopted by Trajan.
  Osroes I deposed his son Parthamaspates of Parthia and replaced him as shah of Parthia.
118   Hadrian withdrew from the territories of Armenia, Assyria and Mesopotamia, allowing the return of their respective client monarchies.
119   A rebellion took place in Britain which was suppressed by Quintus Pompeius Falco.
122   The construction of Hadrian's Wall at the northern border of Britain began.
123   Hadrian arrived in Mauretania to suppress a local revolt.
124   Hadrian travelled to Greece.
126   Hadrian returned to Rome.
  The rebuilt Pantheon was dedicated to Agrippa, its original builder.
132   Bar Kokhba revolt: Simon bar Kokhba, believed by his followers to be the Messiah, launched a revolt against Roman authority in Judea.
135   Bar Kokhba revolt: The revolt ended at a cost of tens of thousands of Roman soldiers and some six hundred thousand Jewish rebels and civilians, including bar Kokhba, killed. Judea and Syria were combined into the single province of Syria Palaestina.
136   Hadrian adopted Lucius Aelius as his son and successor.
138 1 January Lucius Aelius died.
25 February Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius as his son and successor and granted him tribunician power and imperium, on the condition that he in turn adopt Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus as his sons.
10 July Hadrian died, probably from congestive heart failure.
11 July Antoninus succeeded Hadrian.
141   Roman conquest of Britain: Roman forces invaded modern Scotland under the command of the British governor Quintus Lollius Urbicus.
142   The construction of the Antonine Wall at the northern border of Britain began.
161 7 March Antoninus died. He was succeeded by Marcus and Lucius Verus.
  Roman–Parthian War of 161–166: The Parthian Empire deposed the Armenian king Sohaemus of Armenia, a Roman client, and installed Bakur.
165   Antonine Plague: A pandemic, probably of smallpox or measles, began which would kill some five million people throughout the Roman Empire.
166   Roman–Parthian War of 161–166: Roman forces sacked the Parthian capital Ctesiphon.
169   Lucius Verus died of disease, leaving Marcus the sole ruler of Rome.
  Marcomannic Wars: A coalition of Germanic tribes led by the Marcomanni invaded the Roman Empire across the Danube.
175   Marcomannic Wars: Rome and the Iazyges signed a treaty under which the latter agreed to return Roman prisoners of war and supply troops to the Auxilia, ending the war.
177   Marcus named his natural son Commodus co-ruler with himself.
180 17 March Marcus died.
  Antonine Plague: The pandemic ended.
184   The Antonine Wall was abandoned by Roman forces.
192 31 December Commodus was strangled to death.
193 1 January The Praetorian Guard acclaimed the consul Pertinax ruler of Rome at the Castra Praetoria.
28 March Pertinax was assassinated by the Praetorian Guard.
The Praetorian Guard acclaimed the former consul Didius Julianus, who had provided the highest bid, ruler of Rome.
9 April Pescennius Niger, the legatus Augusti pro praetore of Syria Palaestina, was proclaimed ruler of Rome by his legions.
14 April The Legio XIV Gemina acclaimed its commander Septimius Severus ruler of Rome at Carnuntum.
May The Senate recognized Septimius Severus as ruler of Rome and sentenced Julianus to death.
194   Battle of Issus (194): Niger's forces were decisively defeated by the armies of Septimius Severus at Issus.
196   Clodius Albinus, the commander of Roman troops in Britain and Iberia, took the title Imperator Caesar Decimus Clodius Septimius Albinus Augustus.
197 19 February Battle of Lugdunum: Septimius Severus and Albinus met in battle at Lugdunum.
Albinus committed suicide or was killed.
  Roman–Parthian Wars: Septimius Severus sacked the Parthian capital Ctesiphon.
198   Septimius Severus appointed his eldest natural son Caracalla co-ruler with himself.

3rd century[edit]

Year Date Event
208   Roman invasion of Caledonia 208–210: Septimius Severus invaded modern Scotland.
209   Septimius Severus named his youngest natural son Publius Septimius Geta co-ruler with himself and Caracalla.
211 4 February Septimius Severus died.
  Roman invasion of Caledonia 208–210: Caracalla ended the campaign.
26 December Geta was murdered in his mother's arms by members of the Praetorian Guard loyal to Caracalla.
212   Constitutio Antoniniana was an edict issued by Caracalla declaring that all free men in the Roman Empire were to be given full Roman citizenship and that all free women in the Empire were to be given the same rights as Roman women.
217 8 April Caracalla was assassinated by a member of his bodyguard.
The Praetorian Guard acclaimed their prefect Macrinus ruler of Rome.
218 8 June Macrinus was captured and executed by an army loyal to Elagabalus, supposedly the illegitimate son of Caracalla.
222 11 March Elagabalus was assassinated by the Praetorian Guard, which installed his young cousin Severus Alexander as ruler of Rome.
230   Roman–Persian Wars: The Sasanian shah Ardashir I invaded Mesopotamia and Syria.
232   Roman–Persian Wars: Alexander repelled the Sasanian invasion.
235 19 March Alexander was killed in a mutiny of the Legio XXII Primigenia at Mainz.
20 March The army elected Maximinus Thrax, commander of the Legio IV Italica, ruler of Rome.
238 22 March Gordian I, governor of Africa, accepted the rule of Rome at the urging of rebels in his province. He appointed his son Gordian II to rule jointly with him.
2 April The Senate accepted Gordian I and Gordian II as rulers of Rome.
  Battle of Carthage (238): Forces loyal to Gordian I and Gordian II were defeated by the army of Capelianus, the governor of Numidia, who claimed fealty to Maximinus. Gordian II was killed. Gordian I committed suicide.
22 April The Senate elected two senators, Pupienus and Balbinus, as joint rulers of the Empire.
Facing popular opposition to Pupienus and Balbinus, the Senate gave Gordian I's young grandson Gordian III the title Caesar.
May Maximinus was murdered with his son during a mutiny of the Legio II Parthica at Aquileia.
29 July Pupienus and Balbinus were tortured and murdered by the Praetorian Guard in their barracks.
243   Battle of Resaena: Roman forces defeated the Sasanian Empire at Resaena.
244   Battle of Misiche: The Sasanian Empire decisively defeated a Roman force at Misiche, near modern Fallujah. Gordian III was killed, probably by a fellow Roman. He was succeeded by Philip the Arab, the prefect of the Praetorian Guard, who was forced to cede Mesopotamia and Armenia to the Sasanian Empire.
249   Phillip was killed at Verona in battle with Decius, commander of Roman forces in Pannonia and Moesia.
251   Decius appointed his natural son Herennius Etruscus co-ruler of Rome jointly with himself.
  Battle of Abritus: Roman forces were dealt a bloody defeat by the Goths near modern Razgrad. Decius and Herennius were killed.
  The armies of the Danube region acclaimed their commander Trebonianus Gallus ruler of Rome.
  The Senate recognized Decius's son Hostilian as ruler of Rome. Gallus adopted Hostilian as his son.
  Plague of Cyprian: Hostilian died, probably of plague.
  Gallus appointed his natural son Volusianus co-ruler jointly with himself.
253   Battle of Barbalissos: A Sasanian force destroyed a Roman army at Barbalissos.
August Gallus and Volusianus were killed in a mutiny at Terni. The army acclaimed Aemilianus, governor of Pannonia and Moesia, ruler of Rome.
  Aemilianus was killed by his own soldiers in the face of the army of the general Valerian (emperor).
22 October Valerian gave his son Gallienus the title Caesar.
256   The Sasanian Empire conquered and sacked Antioch.
257   Valerian reconquered Antioch.
258   The Goths invaded Asia Minor.
260   Death of Dacian king Regalianus that became Roman emperor for a brief period.
260   Valerian was taken prisoner by the Sasanian Empire during truce negotiations.
September The general Postumus was declared ruler of Rome in the Gallic Empire.
264   Valerian died in captivity.
267   Odaenathus, the king of Palmyra and a Roman client, was assassinated. His widow Zenobia took power as regent for their son Vaballathus.
268   Gallienus was murdered by his soldiers during a siege of Pontirolo Nuovo.
September The general Claudius Gothicus was declared ruler of Rome by his soldiers.
269   Postumus was killed by his soldiers, who in turn acclaimed one of their own, Marcus Aurelius Marius, emperor of the Gallic Empire.
  Marius was murdered by Victorinus, formerly prefect of Postumus's Praetorian Guard, who replaced him as emperor of the Gallic Empire.
  Zenobia conquered Egypt.
  Battle of Naissus: Roman forces decisively defeated the Goths at modern Niš, stalling an invasion of the Balkans.
270 January Claudius Gothicus died. He was succeeded by his brother Quintillus.
April Quintillus died at Aquileia.
September Aurelian became ruler of Rome.
271   Battle of Fano: A Roman force defeated the Juthungi on the Metauro.
  Victorinus was murdered by a officer he had cuckolded.
  Tetricus I, praeses of Gallia Aquitania was acclaimed emperor of the Gallic Empire. He appointed his natural son Tetricus II to rule jointly with him.
272   Zenobia was arrested en route to refuge in the Sasanian Empire.
273   Palmyra rebelled against Roman authority and was destroyed.
274   Battle of Châlons (274): Aurelian defeated the forces of Tetricus I and Tetricus II at modern Châlons-en-Champagne.
275 September Aurelian was murdered by the Praetorian Guard.
25 September The Senate elected Tacitus (emperor) ruler of Rome.
276 June Tacitus died.
  Marcus Aurelius Probus, commander of Roman forces in the east and Tacitus's half-brother, was acclaimed ruler of Rome by his troops.
  Florianus, prefect of the Praetorian Guard and commander of Roman forces in the west, was acclaimed ruler of Rome by his troops.
September Florianus was assassinated near Tarsus by his troops following a defeat at the hands of Probus.
279   Probus launched a campaign against the Vandals in Illyricum.
282   The Praetorian Guard elected their prefect Carus ruler of Rome.
  Probus was assassinated.
  Carus gave his sons Carinus and Numerian the title Caesar.
283   Carus died.
284   Numerian died.
20 November Roman forces in the east elected the consul Diocletian their ruler and proclaimed him augustus.
285 July Battle of the Margus: Forces loyal to Diocletian defeated Carinus in battle on the Morava. Carinus was killed.
July Diocletian gave Maximian the title Caesar.
286   Carausian Revolt: The naval commander Carausius declared himself emperor in Britain and northern Gaul.
2 April Diocletian proclaimed Maximian augustus of the west, ruling himself as augustus of the east.
293   Diocletian established the Tetrarchy, appointing Constantius Chlorus to hold the office of Caesar under Maximian in the west and Galerius to hold the title under himself in the east.
  Carausian Revolt: Constantius Chlorus conquered Carausius's Gallic territories.
  Carausius was murdered by his finance minister Allectus, who replaced him as emperor in Britain.
296   Carausian Revolt: Allectus was defeated in battle and killed at Calleva Atrebatum.

4th century[edit]

Year Date Event
301   Diocletian issued the Edict on Maximum Prices, reforming the currency and setting price ceilings on a number of goods.
303 24 February Diocletianic Persecution: Diocletian issued his first edict against Christians, calling for the destruction of Christian holy books and places of worship and stripping Christians of their government positions and political rights.
305 1 May Diocletian and Maximian abdicated. Constantius and Galerius were elevated to augusti in the west and east. Galerius appointed Flavius Valerius Severus Caesar in the west and Maximinus II Caesar in the east.
306 25 July Constantius died at Eboracum. By his dying wish, his troops acclaimed his son Constantine the Great augustus.
  Galerius recognized Flavius Valerius Severus as augustus in the west and granted Constantine the Great the lesser title of Caesar, which he accepted.
  Civil wars of the Tetrarchy: Rioters in Rome acclaimed Maximian's son Maxentius ruler of Rome. He took the title princeps invictus, undefeated prince.
  Maxentius invited Maximian to reclaim the title augustus.
307   Civil wars of the Tetrarchy: Flavius Valerius Severus surrendered to Maximian at Ravenna.
  Civil wars of the Tetrarchy: Galerius laid siege to Rome. Many of his soldiers defected to Maxentius and he was forced to flee.
308   Civil wars of the Tetrarchy: After a failed coup against his son Maxentius, Maximian was forced to flee to Constantine's court.
11 November Maximian resigned as augustus. Galerius appointed Licinius augustus of the west and confirmed his recognition of Constantine the Great as Caesar of the west.
310 July Civil wars of the Tetrarchy: Maximian was forced to commit suicide following a failed coup against Constantine the Great.
311 May Galerius died. Licinius and Maximinus agreed to divide the eastern Empire between themselves.
  Civil wars of the Tetrarchy: Constantine the Great concluded an alliance with Licinius, offering his half-sister Flavia Julia Constantia to him in marriage.
  Civil wars of the Tetrarchy: Maximinus entered a secret alliance with Maxentius.
3 December Diocletian died, possibly from suicide.
312 28 October Battle of the Milvian Bridge: Constantine the Great had a vision of the cross appearing over the sun at the Ponte Milvio with the words "in this sign, conquer." His forces defeated and killed Maxentius.
313 February Constantine the Great and Licinius issued the Edict of Milan, providing for restitution to Christians injured during the persecutions.
March Licinius married Constantia.
30 April Battle of Tzirallum: Licinius defeated a vastly numerically superior force loyal to Maximinus at modern Çorlu. Maximinus fled to Nicomedia.
August Maximinus died at Tarsus.
314 8 October Battle of Cibalae: Constantine the Great dealt a bloody defeat to Licinius's forces at modern Vinkovci.
317   Battle of Mardia: After a bloody battle, probably at modern Harmanli, Licinius retreated from contact with Constantine the Great.
1 March Licinius recognized Constantine the Great as his superior, ceded all his territories outside of Thrace, and agreed to depose and execute Valerius Valens, whom he had raised to augustus.
324 3 July Battle of Adrianople (324): Licinius suffered a bloody defeat at the hands of Constantine the Great on the Maritsa.
18 September Battle of Chrysopolis: Constantine the Great dealt a decisive defeat to the remnants of Licinius's army. Licinius surrendered.
325 20 May First Council of Nicaea: An ecumenical council called by Constantine the Great at Nicaea opened which would establish the Nicene Creed, asserting Jesus to be equal to and of the same substance as God the Father.
  Licinius was executed.
326   Constantine the Great ordered the death of his oldest son Crispus.
330 11 May Constantine the Great moved his capital to Byzantium and renamed the city Constantinople, city of Constantine.
332   Constantine the Great campaigned against the Goths.
334   Constantine the Great campaigned against the Sarmatians.
337   Roman–Persian Wars: The Sasanian shah Shapur II invaded Armenia and Mesopotamia.
22 May Constantine the Great died.
9 September Constantine the Great's three sons declared themselves augusti and divided their father's empire into three parts, with Constantine II (emperor) receiving Britain, Iberia, Gaul and Illyria, Constantius II Asia, Syria Palaestina and Egypt, and Constans Italy and Africa. The young Constans was placed under Constantine II's guardianship.
338   Constantine II campaigned against the Alemanni.
  Constantine II granted Illyria to his brother Constans.
340   Constantine II invaded Italy. He was ambushed and slain at Aquileia by Constans, who inherited his territory.
341   Constans and Constantius II issued a ban against pagan sacrifice.
344   Siege of Singara: Sasanian forces failed to capture the Roman fortress of Singara.
350 18 January Magnentius, commander of the Jovians and Herculians, was acclaimed ruler of Rome by his legions.
  Constans was killed in Elne by followers of Magnentius.
3 June Constantius Chlorus's grandson Nepotianus entered Rome with a band of gladiators and there declared himself imperator.
30 June Marcellinus (magister officiorum), one of Magnentius's generals, entered Rome and executed Nepotianus.
351 15 March Constantius II granted his cousin Constantius Gallus the title Caesar.
28 September Battle of Mursa Major: Constantius II defeated Magnentius in a bloody battle in the valley of the Drava.
353   Battle of Mons Seleucus: Constantius II dealt Magnentius a decisive defeat at modern La Bâtie-Montsaléon. Magnentius committed suicide.
354   Gallus was put to death.
355 6 November Constantius II declared Julian (emperor) Caesar and granted him command in Gaul.
357   Battle of Strasbourg: Julian defeated a vastly superior Alemanni force near Argentoratum, solidifying Roman control west of the Rhine.
360 February The Petulantes, ordered east from Paris in preparation for a war with the Sasanian Empire, instead mutinied and proclaimed Julian augustus.
361 3 November Constantius II named Julian as his successor before dying of fever.
363 5 March Julian's Persian War: Roman forces embarked from Antioch on a punitive expedition against the Sasanian Empire.
26 June Battle of Samarra: Sasanian forces harassed a Roman army in retreat at Samarra from a failed siege of their capital Ctesiphon. Julian was killed.
27 June Julian's army declared one of their generals, Jovian (emperor), augustus.
July Julian's Persian War: Jovian agreed to cede the five provinces east of the Tigris to the Sasanian Empire, ending the war.
364 17 February Jovian died.
26 February The army acclaimed the general Valentinian I the Great augustus.
28 March Valentinian the Great appointed his younger brother Valens augustus with rule over the eastern Empire, and continued as augustus in the west.
375 17 November Valentinian the Great died of a stroke. His son Gratian, then junior augustus in the west, succeeded him as senior augustus.
22 November The army acclaimed Valentinian the Great's young son Valentinian II augustus of the west.
376   Fleeing Hunnic aggression, the Goths, under the leadership of the Thervingi chieftain Fritigern, crossed the Danube and entered the eastern Empire as political refugees.
  Gothic War (376–382): Following the deaths of several Roman soldiers during civil unrest in Thrace, the officer Lupicinus arrested Fritigern and the Greuthungi chieftain Alatheus.
378 9 August Battle of Adrianople: A combined Gothic-Alanic force decisively defeated the Roman army near Edirne. Valens was killed.
379 19 January Gratian named the general Theodosius I the Great augustus in the east.
380 27 February Theodosius the Great issued the Edict of Thessalonica, making Christianity the state church of the Roman Empire.
382 3 October Gothic War (376–382): The Goths were made foederati of Rome and granted land and autonomy in Thrace, ending the war.
383 25 August Gratian was delivered by mutineers to the Magister equitum Andragathius and executed.
392 15 May Valentinian II was found hanged in his residence. He may have been murdered by his guardian, the Frankish general Arbogast.
22 August Arbogast declared Eugenius augustus and ruler in the west.
393 23 January Theodosius the Great appointed his younger son Honorius (emperor) augustus in the west.
394 6 September Battle of the Frigidus: Forces loyal to Theodosius the Great defeated and killed Arbogast and Eugenius, probably near the Vipava.
395 17 January Theodosius the Great died. His elder son Arcadius succeeded him as augustus in the eastern Byzantine Empire. The young Honorius became sole augustus in the Western Roman Empire under the regency of Magister militum Stilicho.
398   Gildonic War: Gildo, comes of Africa, was killed following a failed rebellion against the Western Roman Empire.

5th century[edit]

Year Date Event
402   The capital of the Western Roman Empire was moved to Ravenna.
406 31 December Crossing of the Rhine: A coalition of foreign tribes including the Vandals, Alans and Suebi invaded the Western Roman Empire across the Rhine.
408 1 May Arcadius died.
410 24 August Sack of Rome (410): Rome was sacked by the Visigoths under their king Alaric I.
  End of Roman rule in Britain: The last Roman forces left Britain.
421 8 February Honorius appointed his brother-in-law and Magister militum Constantius III co-ruler of the Western Roman Empire with himself.
2 September Constantius III died.
423 15 August Honorius died.
  The Western Roman patrician Castinus declared the primicerius Joannes augustus.
424 23 October The Byzantine augustus Theodosius II the Younger, the Calligrapher named the young Valentinian III, his cousin and Constantius III's son, Caesar with rule over the west. His mother Galla Placidia was appointed regent.
425   Joannes was executed in Aquileia.
447   Battle of the Utus: The Huns under Attila defeated a Byzantine army in a bloody battle near the Vit.
450 28 July Theodosius the Younger died in a riding accident.
452   Attila abandoned his invasion of Italy following a meeting at the Mincio with the pope Pope Leo I.
455 16 March Valentinian III was assassinated on orders of the senator Petronius Maximus.
17 March The Senate acclaimed Maximus augustus of the Western Roman Empire.
31 May Maximus was killed by a mob as he attempted to flee Rome in the face of a Vandal advance.
2 June Sack of Rome (455): The Vandals entered and began to sack Rome.
9 July The Magister militum Avitus was pronounced augustus of the Western Roman Empire at Toulouse by the Visigothic king Theodoric II.
456 17 October Avitus was forced to flee Rome following a military coup by the general Ricimer and the domesticus Majorian.
457   Avitus died.
27 January The Byzantine augustus Marcian died.
28 February The Byzantine augustus Leo I the Thracian appointed Majorian Magister militum in the west.
1 April The army acclaimed Majorian augustus of the Western Roman Empire.
461 7 August Majorian was killed after torture near the Staffora on Ricimer's orders.
19 November The Senate elected Libius Severus from among their number as augustus of the Western Roman Empire.
465 15 August Severus died.
467 12 April Leo the Thracian elevated the comes Anthemius to Caesar with rule over the Western Roman Empire.
468   Battle of Cap Bon (468): The Vandal Kingdom destroyed a combined Western Roman and Byzantine invasion fleet at Cap Bon.
472 11 July Anthemius was killed in flight following Ricimer's conquest of Rome. Maximus's son Olybrius was acclaimed augustus of the Western Roman Empire.
18 August Ricimer died.
  Ricimer's nephew Gundobad succeeded him as Magister militum and took the title Patrician.
  Olybrius died.
473 3 March The Germanic elements of the army elected the domesticus Glycerius augustus of the Western Roman Empire.
  Gundobad relinquished his Western Roman titles to succeed his father as king of Burgundy.
474   Leo the Thracian appointed Julius Nepos, his nephew and governor of Dalmatia, ruler of the Western Roman Empire in opposition to Glycerius.
18 January Leo the Thracian died. He was succeeded by his grandson Leo II (emperor).
9 February Zeno (emperor) became co-augustus of the Byzantine Empire with his young son Leo II.
July Nepos deposed Glycerius.
17 November Leo II died, possibly after being poisoned by his mother Ariadne (empress).
475 January Zeno was forced to flee Constantinople for his homeland Isauria in the face of a popular revolt.
9 January Basiliscus, brother of Leo the Thracian's widow Verina, was acclaimed augustus of the Byzantine Empire by the Byzantine Senate.
  Nepos appointed Orestes (father of Romulus Augustulus) Magister militum and commander-in-chief of the Western Roman military.
28 August Orestes took control of the Western Roman capital Ravenna, forcing Nepos to flee to Dalmatia.
31 October Orestes declared his young son Romulus Augustulus augustus of the Western Roman Empire.
476 August Zeno recaptured Constantinople and accepted Basiliscus's surrender.
23 August Germanic foederati under the command of the general Odoacer renounced Western Roman authority and declared Odoacer their king.
28 August Odoacer captured and executed Orestes at Piacenza.
4 September Odoacer conquered the Western Roman capital Ravenna, forced Romulus to abdicate and declared himself king of Italy.
  The Senate sent Zeno the imperial regalia of the Western Roman Empire.
480 25 April Nepos was murdered in his residence in Split.
491 9 April Zeno died.

6th century[edit]

Year Date Event
518 9 July Augustus Anastasius I Dicorus died.
527 1 April Augustus Justin I appointed his older son Justinian I the Great co-augustus with himself.
1 August Justin I died.
529 7 April The Codex Justinianeus, which attempted to consolidate and reconcile contradictions in Roman law, was promulgated.
532   Justinian the Great ordered the construction of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople.
533 21 June Vandalic War: A Byzantine force under the general Belisarius departed for the Vandal Kingdom.
13 September Battle of Ad Decimum: A Byzantine army defeated a Vandal force near Carthage.
15 December Battle of Tricamarum: The Byzantines defeated a Vandal army and forced their king Gelimer into flight.
534 March Vandalic War: Gelimer surrendered to Belisarius and accepted his offer of a peaceful retirement in Galatia, ending the war. The territory of the Vandal Kingdom was reorganized as the praetorian prefecture of Africa.
535   Gothic War (535–554): Byzantine forces crossing from Africa invaded Sicily, then an Ostrogothic possession.
536 December Gothic War (535–554): Byzantium took Rome with little Ostrogothic resistance.
537 27 December The Hagia Sophia was completed.
552 July Battle of Taginae: A Byzantine army dealt a decisive defeat to the Ostrogoths at Gualdo Tadino. The Ostrogoth king Totila was killed.
553   Battle of Mons Lactarius: An Ostrogothic force was ambushed and destroyed at Monti Lattari on its way to relieve a Byzantine siege of Cumae. The Ostrogoth king Teia was killed.
565 March Belisarius died.
14 November Justinian the Great died.
568   The Lombards invaded Italy.
573   The general Narses died.
574   Augustus Justin II began to suffer from fits of insanity.
578 5 October Justin II died.
582 14 August Augustus Tiberius II Constantine died.

7th century[edit]

Year Date Event
602   Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628: The Sasanian Empire declared war on Byzantium.
607 1 August Augustus Phocas dedicated the Column of Phocas in the Roman Forum.
626 June Siege of Constantinople (626): Sasanian and Avar forces laid siege to Constantinople.
634 April Muslim conquest of the Levant: A Rashidun army departed Medina for the Levant.
640 January Muslim conquest of Egypt: A Rashidun force laid siege to Pelusium.
  The legions of the East Roman army were reorganized into themes.
641 8 November Siege of Alexandria (641): Byzantine authorities in the Egyptian capital Alexandria surrendered to the besieging Rashidun army.
663   Basileus Constans II visited Rome.
698   Battle of Carthage (698): An Umayyad siege and blockade of Carthage forced the retreat of Byzantine forces. The city was conquered and destroyed.

8th century[edit]

Year Date Event
717   Siege of Constantinople (717–718): The Umayyad Caliphate besieges the city of Constantinople.
718 15 August Siege of Constantinople (717–718): The Umayyad Caliphate lifts the siege of Constantinople due to Famine, Disease and an unusually hard winter.
730   Basileus Leo III the Isaurian promulgated an edict forbidding the veneration of religious images, beginning the first Byzantine Iconoclasm.
787 23 October Second Council of Nicaea: An ecumenical council in Nicaea ended which endorsed the veneration of images, ending the first Byzantine Iconoclasm.

9th century[edit]

Year Date Event
813 June A group of soldiers broke into the Church of the Holy Apostles and pleaded with the body of the iconoclast basileus Constantine V to restore the Empire, marking the beginning of the second Byzantine Iconoclasm.
843   The Byzantine regent Theodora (wife of Theophilos) restored the veneration of religious images, ending the second Byzantine Iconoclasm.
867 24 September Basileus Michael III was assassinated by his co-basileus Basil I, who became sole ruler of the Empire.

10th century[edit]

Year Date Event
976 10 January Basileus John I Tzimiskes died. His co-basileus and nephew Basil II became sole ruler of the Empire.

11th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1002   Byzantine conquest of Bulgaria: Byzantine forces invaded Bulgaria.
1014 29 July Battle of Kleidion: Basil dealt a decisive and bloody defeat to Bulgarian forces in the Belasica near Klyuch.
1018   Byzantine conquest of Bulgaria: The Bulgarian boyars accepted the establishment of the theme of Bulgaria on the territory of the former Empire, with significant autonomy for themselves.
1025 15 December Basil died.
1054 16 July East–West Schism: The papal legate Humbert of Silva Candida laid on the altar of Hagia Sophia a document proclaiming the excommunication of Michael I Cerularius, the patriarch of Constantinople.
1071 15 April Siege of Bari: Italo-Norman forces captured Bari, capital of the katepanikion of Italy.
26 August Battle of Manzikert: The Byzantine Empire was decisively defeated by a Seljuk force near Malazgirt. The basileus Romanos IV Diogenes was captured.
1081 1 April Nikephoros III Botaneiates was deposed and replaced as basileus by Alexios I Komnenos.
1091 29 April Battle of Levounion: The Byzantine army dealt a bloody defeat to a Pecheneg invasion force.
1097 19 June Siege of Nicaea: The Rum occupants of Nicaea surrendered to Byzantine and First Crusader forces.
1098   Following the conquest of Antioch, the First Crusader leader Bohemond I of Antioch declared himself prince of Antioch.

12th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1118 15 August Reign of John II begins: Being considered the greatest Komnenoi emperor, he starts extensive damage control.
1122   Battle of Beroia: A Byzantine army wiped out the Pechenegs at Stara Zagora.
1124   War with Venice begins: Over the non-renewal of trading privileges by John II Komnenos.
1126   The war with Venice ends in defeat: The Venetian fleet ravaged the coasts of Greece, forcing the emperor to back down.
1127   Hungarians invade the Empire: Invaders go far south as Philippolis.
1129   Invading Hungarins are repelled
1136   John II launches his first serious campaign in the east.
1137   John II conquers the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia.
1139   John II vassalizes the Principality of Antioch.
1143   Death of John II: his death marks the beginning of straight decline.
1146   Sack of Philomelion: Under the orders from Manuel I, before relocating the Christian population.
1167 8 July Battle of Sirmium: Byzantium decisively defeated a Hungarian force at Sirmium.
1176 17 September Battle of Myriokephalon: A Byzantine invasion force was ambushed and forced to retreat through a mountain pass by Rum near Lake Beyşehir.
1180 24 September Basileus Manuel I Komnenos died.
1185 26 October Uprising of Asen and Peter: A tax revolt began in Paristrion which would result in the establishment of the Second Bulgarian Empire.

13th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1204 13 April Siege of Constantinople (1204): Fourth Crusaders breached and sacked Constantinople, deposed the basileus Alexios V Doukas and established the Latin Empire under their leader Baldwin I, Latin Emperor as Latin Emperor. Theodore I Laskaris was acclaimed basileus but forced to flee with his court to establish the Empire of Nicaea at Nicaea.
April Alexios I of Trebizond, a grandson of the former basileus Andronikos I Komnenos, declared himself ruler of Trebizond.
1205   Michael I Komnenos Doukas, a descendant of Alexios I Komnenos, established himself as despot of Epirus.
1261 25 July The Nicaean ruler Michael VIII Palaiologos conquered Constantinople .
15 August Michael was crowned basileus in Constantinople along with his infant son Andronikos II Palaiologos.

14th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1326   Byzantine–Ottoman Wars: The Ottoman Empire conquered Bursa.
1331   Byzantine–Ottoman Wars: The Ottoman Empire captured Nicaea.
1341 26 October Byzantine civil war of 1341–47: The regent John VI Kantakouzenos was declared basileus by his supporters in opposition to the young John V Palaiologos.
1347 8 February Byzantine civil war of 1341–47: John VI concluded an arrangement under which he would rule as senior basileus alongside John V for ten years.

15th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1453 29 May Fall of Constantinople: Ottoman forces entered Constantinople. Basileus Constantine XI Palaiologos was killed.
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